Psalm 147

Psalm 147

Praise the Lord.

How good it is to sing praises to our God,
    how pleasant and fitting to praise him!

The Lord builds up Jerusalem;
    he gathers the exiles of Israel.

He heals the brokenhearted
    and binds up their wounds.

He determines the number of the stars
    and calls them each by name.

Great is our Lord and mighty in power;
    his understanding has no limit.

The Lord sustains the humble
    but casts the wicked to the ground.

Sing to the Lord with grateful praise;
    make music to our God on the harp

He covers the sky with clouds;
    he supplies the earth with rain
    and makes grass grow on the hills.

He provides food for the cattle
    and for the young ravens when they call.

10 His pleasure is not in the strength of the horse,
    nor his delight in the legs of the warrior;

11 the Lord delights in those who fear him,
    who put their hope in his unfailing love.

12 Extol the Lord, Jerusalem;
    praise your God, Zion.

13 He strengthens the bars of your gates
    and blesses your people within you.
14 He grants peace to your borders
    and satisfies you with the finest of wheat.

15 He sends his command to the earth;
    his word runs swiftly.

16 He spreads the snow like wool
    and scatters the frost like ashes.

17 He hurls down his hail like pebbles.
    Who can withstand his icy blast?

18 He sends his word and melts them;
    he stirs up his breezes, and the waters flow.

19 He has revealed his word to Jacob,
    his laws and decrees to Israel.

20 He has done this for no other nation;
    they do not know his laws.

Praise the Lord.

This psalm tells us that the LORD builds, gathers, heals, binds, determines, and calls. He is great and mighty without limits. He sustains, covers, supplies, provides, delights, strengthens, blesses, satisfies, sends, stirs, and, to his people alone, he reveals.

This poetry is full of imagery describing who God is. He does not show himself to just anyone — he reveals his Word to his people — his laws, his decrees, his Son — only to the sheep who hear his voice (John 10:27). It is by his Word that he runs creation, and by his Word that he loves his people.

His delight is in us because we fear him, because we put our hope in his unfailing love (v.11).

This psalm tells us that it is good and fitting to praise the LORD because of all the things he has done for us. All of these action verbs represent life and movement of the Holy Spirit in you. Do you recognize the activity of God in your life? In my small group this week, we discussed seeing God’s movement in our lives. It is a muscle that requires repeated use in order to grow.

Take these verbs one by one and list the way the LORD has accomplished this action in you.

What has he built in your life?

How has he gathered you into a church family?

Describe a time he has healed your broken heart or bound up your wounds.

Do you recognize his sovereign Lordship in determining and calling creation?

How has God provided for and delighted you lately? Has he strengthened you for a specific purpose recently? How is he currently revealing himself to you?

A Weaned Child with His Mother

A song of ascents. Of David

My heart is not proud, Lord,
    my eyes are not haughty;
I do not concern myself with great matters
    or things too wonderful for me.
But I have calmed and quieted myself,
    I am like a weaned child with its mother;
    like a weaned child I am content.

Israel, put your hope in the Lord
    both now and forevermore.

Have you ever heard a newborn baby’s cry for milk? There are not many sounds in the world that are as disconcerting.  It is jarring and is meant to be. The mother can be warming up the milk, or preparing herself to nurse, yet a newborn will continue to scream when he is hungry until he is fed. An infant hasn’t learned to trust that his mother will feed him. He believes he must squirm, fuss, and cry to be fed. He is the picture of agitated, restless anxiety. Do his screams produce the milk? No, he is trying to control something that he absolutely cannot control. A baby is powerless to feed himself. His anxious wailings are an attempt to concern himself with things that are beyond his control, as David points out in this psalm. 

By the time a child is weaned and eating solid food, they have learned to trust their parents to feed them. They smell food cooking and know they will be fed when it is dinner time. The King James Version of Psalm 131 translates the word “calmed” in verse two as “behaved.” This gives us the picture of a child who has learned assurance and self-control; they trust their mother to feed them, and that gives them peace and contentment.[1]

David shows us how to trust in the Lord with a calm and quiet soul.  It requires humility to trust our heavenly Father the way a weaned child trusts his mother.  There cannot be arrogance or superiority when we acknowledge we control nothing and that we are totally unable to provide for ourselves. Humility is accepting our place as a dependent child. God alone can and will provide. Believing that we are solely responsible for producing good in our lives, or in the lives of those we love, breeds anxiety and discontent. 

Another metaphor comparing people with babies was used by the Apostle Paul. He said it is only mature, or spiritual, people who can be fed with solid food, “Brothers and sisters, I could not address you as people who live by the Spirit but as people who are still worldly—mere infants in Christ. I gave you milk, not solid food, for you were not yet ready for it. Indeed, you are still not ready” (1 Cor. 3:1-2).

In the verses immediately prior, Paul explained that spiritually mature people live by the Spirit and have the mind of Christ (1 Cor. 2:6-16). They are able to interpret and discern truth by the Spirit. These are people who know that the things God is planning for them are too wonderful – too great for them to even imagine (Psalm 131: 1b). They are no longer infants because they live dependent on the Spirit and with the mind of Christ. It is the juxtaposition of the Kingdom of God; to think of oneself as independent is to be as an infant, but to know one’s dependence on God is to be mature.  The mature do not try to control things by their own power or interpret things with their fleshly wisdom. They know they must live as weaned children of their Father – without pride, without hubris – knowing they can do all things through Christ and no things without him. 

The spiritual people of Psalm 131 and 1 Corinthians 2-3 are calm and content, completely dependent on God for fleshly provision (food, clothing, shelter) and spiritual provision (discernment, wisdom, power). They do not mistakenly believe that they are producing revelation in their own strength (Eph.1:17). Their lives are spent resting in the satisfaction of dependence on the Spirit of God and hope in him for everything they need. These weaned children have learned that without the mind of Christ, everything in the spirit realm is foolishness to them – salvation, sanctification, discernment, our gifts, the power of God. The natural person (1 Cor. 2:14) cannot accept or understand the things of God. The spiritual person is content, not striving to understand things of God from a natural viewpoint, and not believing that they produce their own spirituality. They trust the Holy Spirit alone to give them understanding of and faith for the “things freely given to us by God” (I Cor. 2:12). 

Peace, contentment, unity, love, and trust are found when our hope is in the LORD. 

[1]God is our Father – Jesus called him Father, even Abba – Daddy. He is the Father with no beginning and no end — eternally generating the Son. Yet, he is not a man. “What is God? God is a Spirit and has not a body like men.” Catechism for Young Children: An Introduction to the Shorter Catechism, Q.9. So, it is always fun to read similes in the Bible where God is compared to a mother as in Psalm 131. In addition to this Psalm there are others who use similes or metaphors of God as a maternal figure, i.e., Deut. 32:18, Isaiah 49:15, Isaiah 66:13, Matt. 23:37.  

Intentional Intimacy — Cultivating the Love of God Through Prayer

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Reading and studying Scripture has been a part of my church culture as well as my own personal culture for years. Attending seminary strengthened my love for studying the Word and theology, especially with other believers. Yet, I noticed that in private devotional practice, my prayer life sometimes suffered. My enthusiastic Bible reading did not always produce intimacy with Christ or powerful times of prayer. Frequently, it felt like I was reading at a distance – about God, not with Him. 

When we practice private devotions, we gain knowledge of who God is, understanding of who we are in Him, and grasp what he requires of us. Yet, those meaningful and neccessary results are not our end goal. Our end goal in life is communion with God, intimacy with Christ, fellowship with the Holy Spirit, and love for our neighbors (Matt. 22:36-39). In our spiritual practice, we want to commit to seek His face, experience His presence, and conform more closely to Christ – we want to love Him more! To achieve this, time spent with God and in His Word must be saturated with prayer. Not simply prayer before and a prayer after but integrated throughout. But how? The strategy described below combines devotional reading of the Scripture with intentional prayer – both for yourself and requests you have for others. 

Intentional Intimacy involves four components that are woven throughout the reading of your daily Bible passage. They are (1) Revere and Rejoice, (2) Repent and Receive, (3) Reflect and Respond, (4) Refuge, Rest, and Request. 

Revere and Rejoice

In this section, you will use your passage’s specific language to rejoice in the Lord by speaking back to Him who he is. Praise Him using the words and/or ideas described in the passage. We will use Psalm 61 as our example: 

Hear my cry, O God;
    listen to my prayer.

From the ends of the earth I call to you,
    I call as my heart grows faint;
    lead me to the rock that is higher than I.
For you have been my refuge,
    a strong tower against the foe.

I long to dwell in your tent forever
    and take refuge in the shelter of your wings. 
For you, God, have heard my vows;
    you have given me the heritage of those who fear your name.

Increase the days of the king’s life,
    his years for many generations.
May he be enthroned in God’s presence forever;
    appoint your love and faithfulness to protect him.

Then I will ever sing in praise of your name
    and fulfill my vows day after day.

To find words to rejoice in God ask the question:  What language in this passage describes God? What words does this psalm use to tell us who He is? How can we praise God using the language that this psalm uses? 

Jesus, you are the ROCK that is higher (v.2). You are my refuge; you are a strong tower against my enemies (v.3). In you is shelter and your wings are my safe place (v.4). You hear my prayer O God (v.1, v.5a). You are a heritage-giver (v.5b). You are loving and faithful, you protect me in Jesus Christ (v.7). I praise you and serve you with my whole life (v.8).

You may be thinking, “Okay, but it is easy to find words in a psalm to praise God!” It is true, the Psalms are our praise-book of the Bible. They were made for rejoicing. But that is why we also use the word “revere” in this part. Other passages may lend themselves more towards reverence than outright rejoicing. Let’s look at a different passage to demonstrate:  

Judges 33:7-11 

The Israelites did evil in the eyes of the Lord; they forgot the Lord their God and served the Baals and the Asherahs. The anger of the Lord burned against Israel so that he sold them into the hands of Cushan-Rishathaim king of Aram Naharaim, to whom the Israelites were subject for eight years. But when they cried out to the Lord, he raised up for them a deliverer, Othniel son of Kenaz, Caleb’s younger brother, who saved them. 10 The Spirit of the Lord came on him, so that he became Israel’s judge and went to war. The Lord gave Cushan-Rishathaim king of Aram into the hands of Othniel, who overpowered him. 11 So the land had peace for forty years, until Othniel son of Kenaz died.

God, you never forget us, even when we forget you (v.7). Even your anger is holy, and you discipline the children that you love (v.8). I stand in awe and holy fear of your power! You always hear my cry, Lord (v.9). You sent a deliverer to the Israelites in this passage, and you send Jesus for us (v.9). You sent your Son to save us, and your Holy Spirit to empower and protect us (v.10). You are my eternal peace (v.11). 

We can find ways to revere God’s holiness and power and rejoice in his strength, love, and faithfulness in every word of Scripture! 

Repent and Receive

The next step in Intentional Intimacy is to Repent and Receive. Repenting may not be something we are used to thinking about every day, but as we repent for the sin the Holy Spirit brings to mind, we become more sensitive to other ways in which we may be grieving the Spirit. We ask God to forgive both our hidden faults and willful disobedience. As we read our passage, many times specific sin comes to mind. Other times we simply see the standard he has set in Scripture and feel our own inability to reach it. It is important to remember that true repentance is a gift from God (2 Tim. 2:25). It is not something we can work up or “try harder” to gain. It is the kindness of God that leads us to repentance (Rom. 2:4). So, as we read our passage, we ask the Holy Spirit to open our eyes, convict us of sin, and remind us of ways we have grieved him. 

Let’s go back to Psalm 61:   

Lord, forgive me for not crying out to you when I am in pain or trouble (v.1-2). Forgive me for turning instead to the distraction that entertainment, food, and drink give me. Forgive me for not taking refuge in you, for not fearing your name as I should (v. 3-4). Lord, you have given me a heritage – forgive me for not seeing it, valuing it, and cherishing it as you have commanded (v.5). [You would also ask forgiveness here for any particular sins that the Holy Spirit reminds you of such as specific envy, greed, bitterness, lust, etc.]

After that, take a moment. Speak 1 John 1:9, Psalm 103:10-14, Ephesians 1:7, or Isaiah 1:18 over yourself. Believe fully that Jesus’ blood has covered your sin. The Father’s face is shining with love towards you. Stay in that moment, receiving the love of God down into your soul. Bask in the feeling of God’s good pleasure toward you. Truly receive the forgiveness of the Father, by the power of the Holy Spirit and thank Jesus for covering your sin by His blood. 

Reflect and Respond

As you read through the passage, reflect on what the Lord is saying to you. It may be personal, or it may be an insight that others would benefit from hearing. As you meditate, the Lord will often call to mind other Bible passages that bring clarity to what you are reading.  If there is time, look the other passage up and reflect on how it informs the meaning of your original passage. Using Psalm 61 again: 

Thank you for hearing my cry to you Lord. You have told us in Philip. 4:6 to not be anxious but to bring our petitions to you! Thank you, Lord, for hearing me. Lord, in this psalm, David is asking for an increase of years of the King’s life, but could he be talking about himself if he is asking for many generations (v.6)? We know you promised him that his seed would be on the throne eternally in reference to Jesus Christ (2 Samuel 7). Is David referring to Christ here Lord? Oh Lord, on a human level, please only increase the number of my own days if I can be in your presence with your love and faithfulness protecting me – unlike Hezekiah, whose request lengthened his life, but your grace did not accompany him (2 Kings 20). Thank you for the heritage you have given me in Christ – the spiritual fathers and mothers I have (v.5). Help me to continue to fear your name and sing your praise all the days of my life (v.5, 8). 

To respond we should ask: How is the Lord prompting me to respond to these thoughts and ideas? What comfort or hope has he shown? How can I integrate these ideas into my daily life? 

I give you my anxiety about all the situations in my life Lord. Thank you for reminding me today that you always hear my cry! Lord, help me to remember that you are my refuge, my safe place. When I am tempted to worry, be anxious, or anesthetize my problems with other things, teach me how to instead trust you, praise you, and feel my union with Christ in the presence of the Holy Spirit. 

Refuge, Rest and Request

Finally, in the presence of God, remind your soul that he is your refuge. Take a deep breath and affirm that He is your rest. Then give your requests to him. Ask him for the specific desires or hopes in your life for yourself, your family, your church, and your community. Lift up those requests you have committed to others to bring to the Lord. Keep track of these requests and make notes when the Lord answers them. 

Psalm 50

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In reading Psalm 50 this morning, I was so encouraged and convicted. The LORD will summon the earth for judgment one day. 

The Israelites were worshipping in the manner God had instructed them. He brought no charges against them concerning their sacrifices (v.eight). Yet, they had begun going through the motions rather than worshipping from the heart. The LORD testified against them that their worship had become rote and motivated by duty (v.7).  God has no need for our worship. We don’t worship because of His need (“If I were hungry I would not tell you,” v.12). We worship him by and because of our need!

Our worship cannot be impelled by habit — it must be heartfelt, thankful (“thank offerings”), and displayed by a life of obedience (“fulfill your vows” v.14). It must be grounded in knowledge of our dependence on Him (“call on me in the day of trouble” v.15). That is how we honor him. 

How am I being hypocritical in my daily life of worship? God’s “silence” (v.21) does not indicate approval of how I am living my life. What can I change about my day-to-day (as well as Sunday) worship of the LORD that will make my heart and actions line up?

A “Geddes” Culture

The other day, my husband received an email sent from a friend and elder at our church hoping to discuss a new heresy that he felt was infiltrating the broader church. When I saw it, I was bothered by the heresy, but for some reason instead of thinking about that and its implications, my mind wandered to an imaginary scenario. What it would feel like if one of my female friends at church had sent it to me and a group of theologically minded women instead of the male friend of my husband. It was almost comical to imagine, and it took a bit of time for me to work through what it would actually look and feel like to have a culture where regular lay women understood and were interested in theology on that level.  

In my day-to-day interactions, it is rare to find women discussing theology, ecclesiology, the state of the current evangelical church, missions, or really anything vital to the well-being of the church. Our conversations revolve mainly around two subjects: our children – how we will educate them, what they are eating, if they are sleeping, and our husbands and their jobs. If we are in a close and healthy group, we may intermittently discuss our walk with Christ, spiritual growth, or struggles. But, at least in my experience, those are few and even in them, true theological discussions are highly uncommon.  As I meditated on this, I began to wonder why our culture was this way. Why do women not discuss theology and theological questions? Why do we seem happy to only skim the surface of each other’s lives? Why are we not concerned about the state of the church? I even entertained the question, are women as a gender truly less capable spiritually? Is it possible we really are the “weaker vessel” in every way – not just physically (1 Peter 3:7)? 

Jesus Christ showed repeatedly that he values, speaks to, and uses women.

Of course, is not true that women are a spiritually weaker vessel. In the Gospels, Jesus Christ showed repeatedly that he values, speaks to, and uses women. The most glorious moment in human history — Jesus Christ’s resurrection — was entrusted to a woman to share (John 20:1-18). His precious incarnated body was carried and borne by a woman. Women like the prophetess Anna (Luke 2:36-38), Mary and Martha (John 10:38-42 and John 11:27), Phoebe (Romans 16:1-2), the Greek women of Berea (Acts 17:1-4), and countless others were respected workers in the gospel. God even used Priscilla, along with her husband Aquila, to give theological instruction to Apollos who then went on to become an important, theologically accurate, evangelist in the church (Acts 18:24-28, 1 Corinth. 3:6). Women are not Christians “lite”, and we are not “junior partners” in the gospel. So why are most women in the complementarian, reformed community today uninterested in theology? Why do we not concern ourselves with important ecclesiological issues? 

Rising to the Challenge

There are different causes and possibly many different answers, but I believe the bottom line is simple. As humans, we rise to challenges. In order to grow, we must have a bar to jump or a problem to solve. A goal gives us something to work towards. Men in the church know they are leaders; they have a felt responsibility to their families and to the church. They are ordained as pastors, elders, and deacons. They are asked to teach adult Sunday School classes and retreats for teenagers. The pastors and elders of a church are constantly scanning the horizon of men in their churches to find new leaders and teachers. I do not believe women should be ordained to the office of pastor or elder, but complementarianism seems to result in an unspoken modus operandi of women having no gifting at all. We are left with a culture where women not only (supposedly) have a secondary role in the home and are discouraged from working outside the home so as to care for and even teach their children, but they also have no place in the church – they are unnecessary, superfluous.

Humans grow through expectation, work, and effort. Muscle is grown when it is challenged to bear more and more weight. In the same way, we are meant to grow spiritually by our community expecting something from us. Each part of our body has a function, and it is no coincidence that Paul uses this very metaphor as an example in 1 Corinthians 12. Are we truly a body of which no part is expendable (1 Corinthians 12:12-31)? Why then is there no expectation for women to use their spiritual gifts? Why do the elders of the church not seek to grow and use these gifts? Why are women not taking the responsibility to learn and develop their own gifts and callings? 

If women are only expected to show up (and even then, sometimes simply to watch the children) there is no motivation, opportunity, or means to grow and develop. When there is no expectation, apathy is unbridled. When a person believes they have no purpose and are not needed, there is no motivation to grow, learn, and shoulder real responsibility. They atrophy spiritually, just as muscles atrophy when not used. 

Men in church, on the other hand, have these opportunities and expectations from when they first join. They are personally motivated to grow. They are seen, drawn from, and developed by others. They have no doubt an investment in theological study will enable them to bear fruit in the church at large. 

When a person believes they have no purpose and are not needed, there is no motivation to grow, learn, and shoulder real responsibility.

I finished my master’s degree and then began a post-graduate degree in Theology as a man a few years younger than me at church began his Master of Divinity.  He immediately was given teaching opportunities and even preaching opportunities from the pulpit. He had already been teaching Sunday school and leading small groups for years and as he taught and led, his gift was recognized. He then received encouragement and support to further his training. This is exactly how the development of spiritual gifts should work in a healthy church environment, but that was when it hit me – I was probably wasting my time with theological training. There was no one encouraging me in my theological education. There was not even a way for me to use my gifts or training at my church. There was no one to eagerly draw from me or my education. 

This can be a vicious cycle for women and a serious systemic problem. Nothing is expected of us, so we produce nothing. Men and the church as a whole then look at our lack of theological acuity and feel they are proven right to not allow us to use our gifts because we are shallow spiritually and easily distracted by the domestic.

There is a famous story in the Presbyterian heritage about a courageous woman named Jenny Geddes.[1] It was 1637 and King Charles I began instituting Anglican worship through the required usage of a book of canons – a liturgy – in the fiercely Presbyterian Scotland. Jenny Geddes was a common woman in Edinburgh – so common in fact, her personal information has been lost to history. But we do know that she came to church in St. Giles Cathedral on Sunday, July 23, 1637, with her stool to sit upon in hand. The Dean, dressed in his vestment, came into the sanctuary, and walked up to the reading desk. As he began to read the liturgy, the crowd began to murmur. Jenny stood up and shouted, “Villain, dost thou say mass at my lug?” and promptly threw her stool at him, only missing his head because he ducked in time. Her act broke open the crowd’s frustration and they ran the dean out of the sanctuary with him losing his vestment in the process. The bishop then stood up to try to quiet the crowd, but he also was shouted down with accusations of “Pope!” and “anti-Christ!” and had to dodge stones being thrown. This scene initiated what some call the second reformation in Scotland.[2]

I tell this story partly as a very interesting and amusing part of history, but also as a challenge. What would have happened if Jenny Geddes did not know the Bible, or her own community’s theology well enough to recognize a resurgence of popery? I am not trying to give her more credit than she deserves, but there are many times in history where one person’s momentary choice becomes a turning point for a revolution. Where is the fiery spirit of Geddes in our churches and in our women today? Where is the stance on orthodoxy and correct theological thinking? Do we as women really believe that we bear no responsibility to the church? Do we have works to which Christ has called us and for which we must answer?

Geddes and I would probably disagree on many finer points of theology, but her spirit is one I want to emulate. As women, we must recognize that we are full members of the body of Christ, and we are in union with him the same way as men. We are gifted, called, and will be held responsible for our callings before the judgement seat of Christ along with our leaders. We will not be allowed to hide behind our pastors or husbands when we are called to account and we must not hide today either. 

[1] There are not many resources about Geddes but if you are interested, this one can give more information: W.P. Breed, Jenny Geddes or Presbyterianism and Its Great Conflict with Despotism (Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1869).

[2] Thomas McCrie, Sketches of Scottish Church History: embracing the period from the Reformation to the Revolution (Edinburgh: J. Johnstone, 1846), 204.

Clinging to Christ

As much as I have enjoyed school through the years, the first days and weeks of a new term always produce anxiety.  Yet, time and again when entering an unfamiliar lecture room, I would sense the other students fears and anticipation alongside my own. The communal classroom brought a realization that we are all in the same boat, experiencing the same emotions, and that commonality helped allay our fear. Joining the MTh program at Union School of Theology during the year of Covid was a completely unique experience. There was no school to walk into because classes were online. The palpable feeling of expectation and timidity of a new year was no longer endured by everyone in a room together. The bond that comes when placed in identical desks, physically lower than the lecturer, was lost. Sitting in vastly different homes, in separate time zones, instead emphasised our inequalities. My true life was literally on display as my husband and children wandered off and on the screen. I became adept at camera angles that hid dirty dishes and unmade beds.  Most years in my academic career, I have been able to at least impersonate a serious student, but this year it seemed impossible.

I chose Union because it offered opportunity, especially for women. Union was the first school I found which was confessional and reformed yet proactively seeking to train women theologically. Equipping women in theology is more than a nice thought, idea, or the ticking of a box at Union.  Phoebe scholarships, the Priscilla program, and the hiring of Natalie Brand as a dedicated women’s tutor are unmistakable proof that Union takes seriously the call to prepare for service the oft-neglected half of Christ’s bride. This was motivation and support that I did not realize I needed until I felt it for the first time at Union. 

Even with this support and encouragement, I was unsure and out of place when I began. The anxiety usually dissipated by relationships built in the classroom and over meals was mired by Zoom. Through the computer screen, other students appeared academically fearless and expectant. It was easy to imagine their world had no Zoom interlopers or unfolded laundry to hide. Would I have anything to add to discussions? Could I keep up? Was I even called to this level of academic study? 

In hesitant obedience to God, I resolved to attend class, research, and write in faith; not in a naïve faith that promises only outstanding marks and accolades, but a faith that was committed to trusting God no matter the marks made, or difficulties presented. This faith was, of course, tested in various ways the whole year. 

The humility that came from stepping into classes I did not feel I fit into strengthened my faith in Christ. It is funny how weakness and vulnerability given to Christ offer safety and strength in return. I knew before I started that I would not be able to complete this degree without His help, and that was proven all year. It may sound trite or pedantic, but in my case, it was absolutely true. There was not a class, or an essay begun where I was not begging the Lord to help me get through. Any understanding I gained or displayed was unmistakably by His grace. It is a unique gift to know your limitations and then see the Lord cover the gap between your ability and his calling. 

Academic study may seem like the opposite of growing in faith, the antithesis of increasing in affection for Christ. How mystical can researching 19th century liberal scholars be? Yet the rigor of class and the challenge of research and essay writing threw me into the arms of Christ. He alone had life for me in the days of frustration, anxiety, and the questioning of my ability to be a student. Jesus provided life for me in many amazing ways at Union – lecturers, tutors, fellow students and much of the research and study itself. But the most powerful and consistent encouragement came through my personal devotional study of the book of Ruth.  

Ruth was the Moabitess who recognized the LORD in His people. In the Israelites worship, their relationships, their homes, and culture Ruth found Him. Ruth represents a partial fulfilling of Genesis 12:3 – she is a foreshadowing of us – the Gentiles whose eyes would be miraculously and graciously opened to the beauty of Christ, and his bride the Church. When Ruth’s mother-in-law Naomi told Ruth to go back to her own pagan people, she refused. Ruth 1:14 says, “Then they lifted up their voices and wept again. And Orpah kissed her mother-in-law, but Ruth clung to her” (emphasis mine). Ruth saw the LORD in Naomi and clung to him. She was “determined” to have a place with the covenant people (v.18). 

As Ruth foreshadowed the nations coming to Jesus, the prophet Zechariah did as well when he declared, “In those days ten men from the nations of every tongue shall take hold of the robe of a Jew, saying, ‘Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you’” (Zech. 8:23). Jesus Christ is this Jew whose robe the nations have taken hold. The “ten men from every nation” wanted to go with Christ, and they have clung to his robe. Jesus is the one to whom we as believers have clung and must continue to cling! Ruth had no idea she could be a part of the heritage that would bring forth the Messiah when she clung to Naomi. She simply saw Christ in his people and grasped him through Naomi. 

In the same way as Naomi and the ten men from every nation, we also must cling to Jesus. When our eyes are opened by God in conversion, we behold the irresistible beauty of Christ, and we cannot help but grasp him.  Continuing to cling to Christ daily also requires his grace and mercy. He gives us this grace through daily study of the word, meditation on our union with him, fellowship with other believers, receiving the sacraments, and prayer. It takes a daily trusting of his grace to live each day for him and find life only in Him and in his Word. Simon Peter echoes Ruth as he answers Jesus’ question saying, “Lord, to whom shall we go? You alone have the words of eternal life” (John 6:68). As Jesus alone has the words of eternal life, he also is the only one who can give us peace for anxiety, encouragement for fear, hope for uncertainty, and grace for difficulty. 

Especially in seminary, we must cling to his promises to equip us for the ministry to which he has called us. He will not call without also equipping, yet knowing that promise and believing it can sometimes be disconnected. Believing he is committed to equipping us for ministry means trusting him that everything that happens is for our good, our growth, and the expansion of our knowledge of him. We must take to heart what Elizabeth proclaimed over Mary in Luke, “Blessed is she who has believed that the LORD will fulfil his promises to her!” (1:45).

Believing God’s promises for future ministry creates a fissure in self-reliance and self-sufficiency. As the light and life of Christ shines through that fissure in our stony hearts, there is hope that he will use us, he will equip us, and he will allow us to partner with him in building his kingdom. We have seen him, we will cling to him, and we will experience the blessing of believing his promises to us.  

Honey from the Rock

“But he would feed you with the finest of wheat, and with honey from the rock I would satisfy you.” Psalm 81:16

This beautiful picture of provision comes at the end of a psalm that reads more like a prophecy (ref: ESV study notes). Asaph’s song begins by commanding us to sing out loud to God, play instruments, and offer exuberant worship. He then transitions into describing how the LORD has delivered Israel and how Israel has not listened to his voice (v.11), so he “gave them over to their stubborn hearts to follow their own counsels” (v.12). This psalm’s description of God’s deliverance explains that the way of blessing is to listen to his voice. Like a father, he wants to fill our mouths, feed us, and satisfy us.

The phrase from verse 16, “honey from the rock” jumped out at me. It reminded me of Moses striking the rock in Numbers 20 and his subsequent banning from the promised land. A glance at the cross references gave a hint in that direction by pointing to Moses’ song in Deuteronomy 32. Here, Moses names the LORD as “The Rock” and verse 13 says, “and he suckled him with honey out of the rock,” giving the picture of Israel being fed. This song the LORD gives Moses is after the infamous incident of Moses striking the rock in Numbers when the LORD commanded him to speak to the rock.

The apostle Paul explains this rock of provision for the Israelites, “for they drank from the spiritual rock that accompanied them, and that rock was Christ” (I Corinthians 10:4). So, we know that Jesus Christ is “The Rock” of Moses’ song, and he is the Rock that provided water for Israel in the desert. Jesus is the “stone the builder’s rejected” that became the “cornerstone”(Psalm 118:22, Matt. 21:42, Mark 12:10, Luke 20:17, 1 Peter 2:4-8). Additionally, he promises living water to those who come to him thirsty (John 7:37). He is the rock from which flows rivers of living water, and of whom we must eat and drink in order to have life (John 6:53).

God’s word to us, Jesus Christ — his redemptive story in the Bible — is also described as bread. He is God’s provision to us. John 6 has the miraculous feeding of the five thousand with a loaf of broken bread, followed by Jesus’ promise that he is the bread of life — the manna from heaven (v.32-35). Manna was described as having a “taste…like wafers made with honey” (Ex. 16:31). There are many other Scriptures that also describe God’s word –his daily bread to us — as honey:

“How sweet are your words to my taste, sweeter than honey to my mouth!” (Psalm 119:103) Psalm 19 describes God’s law as “sweeter also than honey and drippings of the honeycomb.” Ezekiel’s call from God to speak his word included eating a scroll from God that tasted as “sweet as honey” (Ezek. 3:3). The scroll the apostle John was given was sweet in his mouth but then turned bitter in his stomach with judgment (Revelation 10). So, from the rock which is Christ, he gives us the sweet word — his very self — as provision, mercy, and grace for each day.

The point of Psalm 81 is the imperative to listen and obey God’s voice. Its phrasing and imagery is meant to teach us that Jesus is the Rock and the Word filled with sweetness and provision. The LORD wants to satisfy us, to provide for us by his Son who is the honey-sweet manna, the bread of life, and the living water. He is the scroll that we eat, the words that we hear, and the Rock on which we fall to be broken in pieces in the sacrifice of worship for our King (Matt. 21:44).

Practical Training for Small Group Leaders

Time Management 

Using time wisely is crucial in facilitating a small group discussion. Valuing every minute communicates the importance of the discussion itself.  It shows respect for the women’s hard work throughout the week in completing the passage. All women are busy. Each one has made sacrifices to be at Bible study each week. Beginning and ending study on time are crucial to communicate respect and consideration. To not be intentional with your time is to communicate that the study is trivial.  

You will have a set amount of time for each week’s meeting. It is helpful to look over and think through your own preparation and make note of what was the most fruitful for you.  Observe the parts that take more time and plan ahead accordingly. Practical application is very important for helping people see where they need to repent or change, so it is imperative to not run out of time. Always be aware of the time and how long your group has left.  It is your responsibility to lead your group in discussing the whole passage each week and to ensure that one person does not “rabbit trail” the discussion. Skipping sections will discourage the women who have spent precious time that week completing the entire lesson. Occasionally there may be an exception to getting through the entire passage – if a serious issue arises that must be dealt with – but this should definitely be an anomaly. 

It will take experience and wisdom to judge the difference between someone wasting time and someone sharing a personal and meaningful application to her life. Trust the Holy Spirit to help you as you grow in this ability. 

Small Group Dynamics

Your goal in the discussion is to help each woman in your group feel comfortable and safe to share what God has shown her that week.  The objective of the group is a deep, vibrant, and authentic discussion of God’s Word. Some women will be naturally confident to speak and share, and other women will be more reluctant. As you gain experience and get to know your group, you will develop winsome methods for drawing out the hesitant women and helping the talkative women become better listeners. When you have an eager-sharer, sometimes it works to gently interrupt and say, “I want to hear the rest of that Jane, but I’m afraid we are running out of time. Let’s plan a group fellowship where we can each have time to share the wonderful stories of God’s grace in our life!” 

Sometimes it helps to note on your paper the women who have not shared that day. When appropriate, gently encourage the quiet women to answer by calling on them directly. 

Many times, a group takes a while to “warm-up” to one another. It may seem like a long stretch of awkward silence but resist the temptation to jump in and answer yourself. Some groups need more time before someone has the courage to speak out. “Rescuing” the group too quickly short-cuts that process and inadvertently teaches them that you have all the answers. 

Be an attentive and interested listener. It is much harder to listen than it is to speak. You are modeling for the group how to create a thoughtful discussion. Use your body language to communicate your genuine interest. Seek to keep eye contact with the woman speaking the entire time she is sharing. If appropriate, verbally respond to her answer to show that you were listening and you value what she said. 

Aiming for every woman to share every week teaches that everyone’s answers are important. It also conveys that each woman is not only a necessary part of the group, but that God will speak to each person through his Word.  This helps each woman feel more responsibility during the week to complete the lesson.  Just as one would not show up to a covered dish dinner empty-handed, this approach ensures each woman feels a responsibility to seek God for the group. 

Do not allow women to criticize one another’s answers, or to criticize their own answers.  Do not allow the group to depend on one or two members to do all the work, or to look to older/more mature members to always answer. Do your best to create an atmosphere of freedom to make mistakes and give each woman respect and the opportunity to receive grace and mercy. 


         Communicating with your small group each week is essential to help the women in your group trust you and bond with each other. Contact each of your women every week, checking in with them, encouraging them in their lesson, answering any questions they have, and taking their prayer requests.  It is a good idea to send an email every week with any announcements and with the group prayer requests. 

An example of a contact phone call:  You: “Hi, Carrie! This is Janet. Is this a good time to talk? Great! I just wanted to check in with you and see how you are doing and how I can be praying for you this week. You can give a prayer request that you want me to share with the group or one that you want me to keep confidential. I will be praying for you every day, so I would love to be able to pray specifically!” 

Of course, texting is fine as well.  Some (especially younger) women will only communicate through text and others love a phone call. Take good notes as they share with you so that you can communicate those requests accurately to the group as well as pray effectively. 

When a group member misses a week, be sure and contact her as soon as possible to establish that the group missed her and isn’t the same without her. 

Prayer Requests

         Prayer requests are a wonderful way to get to know and to support other women in our church and community.  Yet, we all know what it is like when the prayer requests themselves take all the time in a group.  This is why contacting the women for their requests each week before the group meets is imperative. Do not allow prayer requests to be expressed during your discussion time. Communicate to your women that the prayer requests should be for them personallyThis means it must be a prayer request for them as an individual – not for their neighbor or even for their child. If they have a situation, encourage them to ask for prayer that helps their response to the situation. For example, if group member Betty has a neighbor with cancer, the prayer request would be: Please pray for Beth as she seeks to minister the love of Christ to her neighbor Sarah who was recently diagnosed with cancer.

Emphasize the confidentiality you will keep if asked and advise your group members of their responsibility to keep all prayer requests confidential. Distribute the prayer requests for the women by passing them out or sending over email each week. This will help your group bond quickly. The thoughtful members of your group will begin to ask one another about ongoing requests. This quickly deepens friendships and creates connection. The group bonding over answered prayers as well as a mutual desire to grow in Christ will encourage them to dig in the Scripture more carefully and to share more readily and genuinely with the group.  

Your personal daily prayers will grow your love for your group and will enable you to lead them with joy. Daily prayers for your group members are not only a commitment you have made, but a privilege!  When you pray, you are acknowledging to God and others that He is sovereign. He is the one who supplies every need, and he is the one “who works in you, both to will and to work for his good pleasure” (Philip. 2: 13). Pray for the Holy Spirit to draw near to them as they study his word, for them to feel his presence, for their commitment to the group, for intimate sharing, and for equal participation among members. 


         One of your most cherished roles as a leader will be in shepherding. This is just another word for encouraging and discipling. Jesus is our Good Shepherd, the Lamb of God, who gave himself up for his sheep. Ultimately, he is the women’s shepherd.  His promise is to search for his sheep, bring back the strays, bind up the injured, and strengthen the weak (Ezekiel 34:15-16). And of course, the elders are the women’s authority as shepherds. God will use the elders of the local church to fulfill these promises to his people.  

As the women study the Bible and share their lives, you are called to come alongside and support the elders in their shepherding. As female leaders, we have a unique perspective on the struggles women go through and so part of our support of the elders is to guide the women as they seek to grow in the Lord. As you pray daily for the women in your group, God will give you love and compassion for them.  When they realize you are faithfully praying for them and you are genuinely interested in helping them grow in God, they will bring you into their heartaches and victories. 

Colossians 1:28-29 gives us insight into what God is calling us to as leaders. “Him we proclaim, warning everyone and teaching everyone with all wisdom, that we may present everyone mature in Christ. For this I toil, struggling with all his energy that he powerfully works within me.”  Paul is telling us that he works very hard, he toils and struggles for the people he leads. Shepherding is not easy and will require energy on your part.  But the beautiful promise also in this verse is that it is with Christ’s energy we are given! We aren’t left on our own to muster up strength for the work God has called us to – he will powerfully work in us. Knowing and ministering out of this will combat sinful ways that we will be tempted to feel. We will be tempted by both fear and pride.[1] We fear that what we are doing is futile, or that it will actually be detrimental rather than encouraging.  We are tempted by pride when our ministry bears fruit.  Remembering that it is only through Christ’s powerful energy that we minister will demolish our pride. It is an amazing privilege to be a part of someone’s walk with God! 

[1] Mark Dever, Discipling (Wheaton: Crossway, 2016), 30-31.

Theological Support for Small Group Leadership

Being a leader in the Kingdom of God is different than any other leadership position you will ever encounter.  It is often said that the Kingdom of God is an “upside-down” reality.  Everything is different in the Kingdom of God. This is true of leadership as well.  Our natural tendency is to think of leaders as powerful, forceful, and impressive.  Yet, Christian leaders are called to be weak, meek, and humble.  

“But he said to me, ‘My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.’ Therefore I will boast all the more gladly of my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may rest upon me. For the sake of Christ, then, I am content with weaknesses, insults, hardships, persecutions, and calamities. For when I am weak, then I am strong” (2 Corinthians 12:9-11).

“Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth” (Matthew 5:5).

“I therefore, a prisoner for the Lord, urge you to walk in a manner worthy of the calling to which you have been called, with all humility and gentleness, with patience, bearing with one another in love” (Ephesians 4:1-2).

The most important aspect of leadership is your own personal relationship with God. Your intimacy with God will fuel your leadership. This intimacy is centered around prayer and personal study of the Word.  Never allow your leadership responsibilities to negatively affect your own personal walk with the Lord. It is only by our constant dependence on Him that we will be able to serve those God has called us to cheerfully and lovingly. 


Prayer must be the foundation of your service to the Kingdom of God. Your union in Christ and your communion with him are vital in your ability to serve without burn-out.  

Spend time meditating on being hidden in him and on your union with him. Savor the sweet communion he gives when you go to him in prayer. Never sacrifice your personal time with Jesus for any leadership duty. Prayer is the fuel that runs the machine of your life with Christ, your service to him, and to his church.  In the same way, our study of the Bible is essential to our ability to serve. 

To have the love of Jesus manifested in your life, you must love God by knowing and obeying his commands. How can you know what his commands are? By studying his word. Communion with God in the Scriptures is the anchor of our souls. It will keep us standing on the Rock. Trust God with the time you spend in his Word. Your time spent is communion with him and not a duty to fulfill. 

HumilitySee Philippians 2:4-8

Effective leaders in the Kingdom of God are called to have the same humility and attitude of a servant just as Jesus Christ.  

Jesus has called each of us to deny ourselves and take up our cross. When you follow Jesus, your life is no longer yours. You have given your life to Christ. Just as Jesus emptied himself and took the form of a servant, we are to do the same for the church. As you pray for and minister to your small group, you are looking to their interest instead of your own. We are each to have this mind as we serve in leadership. This humility will be conspicuous in all the relationships in our life. Our relationship with our spouse, children, and family should reflect this principle. Love for God and for others is our motivation. We are called to continually look to the interests of those we are serving in both our families as well as the church. Ask Jesus for the grace to serve others with humility. Trust him to change and sanctify you as you depend on him for the ability to humble yourself in your service and seek the good of others.

Spiritual Giftings

John Calvin wrote, “Scripture urges and warns us that whatever favors we may have obtained from the Lord, we have received them as a trust on condition that they should be applied to the common benefit of the church.” And “Whatever ability a faithful Christian may possess, he ought to possess it for his fellow believers, and he ought to make his own interest subservient to the well-being of the church in all sincerity.”[1]

God has given you specific spiritual gifts that he wants to use for the furtherance of his Kingdom.  This ministry is the perfect opportunity to practice and develop those gifts. Your love of and commitment to the gospel of Jesus Christ will flow through your gifts. You may be surprised when discipleship and mentoring of your group continues outside of your weekly time together. Many times, this is where genuine ministry happens. The real-life circumstances that we find ourselves in each day are opportunities to apply the principles and promises being learned from Scripture. Be open to every opportunity the Holy Spirit gives you to teach and encourage those around you. 

We must continually be thinking of ourselves “with sober judgement” (Romans 12:1-9), so that we will not be proud, but instead will experience the faith God has given us to use our spiritual gifts. 


We are justified by faith. When we step out in ministry to others, our service must come from a place of faith as well. Faith is different from self-confidence. Instead of trusting in yourself, it is looking to God to fulfill his promises.  You are moving in obedience to God, believing he will be the power behind you. As referred to above, Paul says using our gifts effectively requires humility and faith. The two must go hand in hand.  We see in the body of Christ that we are all different, we have distinct gifts and callings, and we each serve according to the grace and faith God has given us.

There is a moment in each of our callings where we must step out, not knowing what is coming.  Much like Peter stepping out of the boat (Matthew 14:28-33), there will be a time you must actually get out of the boat of your own comfort, and trust God to help you walk on the water of ministry.  You must take the risk of using your spiritual gifts and trust God to do the work. You know that he has called you to something that is impossible for you in your own strength to accomplish.  But we step out of the boat, believing in faith that it is God who will do the real work in these women’s lives.  

It is God who gives us the mustard seed of faith (Luke 17:6, Matthew 13:31-32) and that seed is crucial to serve in ministry.  Guard the mustard seed he has given you. Meditate on the fact that it is Christ in you who has the strength and ability to minister to the women. Nurture your seed of faith with the water and sunlight of the word and prayer. The God who has called you will continue to give you the faith to carry out his will. Rely on Him as you prepare, teach, and serve. 

Trusting God when Faced with Challenges

He who called you is faithful to equip you

Sometimes when we are serving the church as well as our families, we can begin to feel overwhelmed.  Do not allow your leadership in Bible study to detract from the calling you have at home.  God will provide for you in all that he has called you. Be conscientious to not over-prepare for Bible study, as this may strain and overload you unnecessarily.  We each have multiple responsibilities in life. Your family/personal relationships will interrupt you as you serve the women, and your shepherding of the women may interrupt time usually spent with family and friends. Trust God with these challenges, remembering that he who called you is faithful to equip you to serve him.

He has called you to something impossible to accomplish in your own strength

Ask Jesus for the grace to serve with his strength instead of your own.  He wants to grow your dependence on him through these trials. “Humble yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of God so that at the proper time he may exalt you, casting all your anxieties on him, because he cares for you” (1 Peter 5:6-7). As believers in this fallen world, we should expect suffering.  It is through suffering that we experience the grace and mercy of God. It is through suffering that we experience our fragility and his unending strength. And it is through suffering that our eyes are lifted above this fallen, sinful world and we remember that “we have no lasting city, but we seek the city that is to come” (Heb. 13: 14). 

Jesus himself “learned obedience through what he suffered” (Heb.5:8), and he is able to understand and sympathize with our weaknesses. Let’s not be anxious about what is happening in our lives because when we “draw near to the throne of grace” we will receive all we could ever need from him who loves us (Heb. 4:15-16). 

Moral Integrity

Moral integrity, or holiness, is also a key component in leadership. Our “chief end” is “to glorify God and to enjoy him forever.”[2] This means every activity we participate in is meant to glorify God. Whether we are studying the Bible or washing dishes, we are meant to do it for the glory of God (Colossians 3:17). In every situation we find ourselves, we must ask this question: What can I do in this situation to bring the most glory to God?[3] Bringing glory to God is our moral compass. Our morality is growing in holiness before God and man.  This holiness is not only external but is an outgrowth of the inner work the Holy Spirit is doing in us. Holiness is a gift from Christ. “Because the Father has reconciled us to himself in Christ, therefore he commands us to be conformed to Christ as to our pattern.”[4] 

Cultivate inner growth by reflecting daily on your union with Christ, the equipping by the Holy Spirit, and the sovereign grace and love of the Father. As you continue growing in your sanctification, share your victories and your struggles with your leadership team. Encourage others as you are encouraged by the Word, and by your own growth (1 Thessalonians 5:11).  Don’t forget, as leaders our moral choices not only affect us but also those whom we serve in leadership, our family, our church family, and our community. 

RepentanceSee 1 John 1:5-10

One crucial safeguard of your moral integrity is to, as attributed to the Puritans, “Keep your accounts short with God and men.” This means don’t allow days and weeks go by without repenting for known sin. We should repent often and repent “particularly.”[5] In other words, we should repent with details to God. We should pointedly consider ourselves and repent as the Holy Spirit convicts.  And as we sin against one another, we also must repent specifically and offering forgiveness impartially and endlessly.[6] Repentance is always the marker of revival, both an individual’s personal revival and documented societal revivals. If we want our community, church, and ministry to experience revival, it must begin with repentance.  

Repentance is a kindness shown to us by God (Rom. 2:4). Jesus commands us to repent (Luke 5:32), and he points out that it is sinners whom he has called to repent. We can be assured of our salvation as we experience conviction from the Holy Spirit (I Thess. 1:5). True, rich, growing relationships with other people will always give us much practice in both repentance and forgiveness. 

Each one of us should have another person to whom we can confess and truly share our lives, struggles, and victories. This aspect of fellowship is vital and can be a means of grace for the ongoing desire for holiness in our lives.  As we repent and forgive, remember that “love bears all things” (I Cor. 13:7).  We each will take turns bearing all things in one another. 

Accountability to the Local Church

The local church is often immensely undervalued in the broadly evangelical world today.  The New Testament was written to particularized local churches, and Paul assumed a local church organization when he taught on elders and deacons in the epistles.  It is almost shocking how much emphasis is placed on the local church in the New Testament.

God wants to spread his fame through the local church. The local church is God’s plan for evangelism and mission.  

The local church matters to God. In Scripture the church is called the body of Christ, and his bride (Colossians 1:18, Revelation 21:2, 21:9).  If the local church is that precious and valuable to God, it should be to us as well. This is where one should find the discipleship and accountability needed to grow and mature. Parachurch organizations are helpful, but the local church is the place we can truly live all of life together with other believers and hold one another accountable.  

The local church is our spiritual authority.  If we are not in a local church, or if our ministry is not founded in the local church, we risk being “lone rangers” with no accountability or discipline. Rather than being restrictive and controlling, spiritual authority grounded in the word of God gives safety and blessing. 

An elder is charged with overseeing the local church. So, first of all, an elder cannot oversee things he cannot see.  In other words, nothing we do should be “out of sight” of the elders. We should always endeavor to operate with their full knowledge and enthusiastic blessing.  

Second, an elder has been given authority over the doctrine which is taught in the church (Acts 20:28-31). Therefore, we must not teach things that disagree with the doctrine of the church. My church is reformed in doctrine, we subscribe to the Westminster Confession of Faith as our standards, and we are Presbyterian in our ecclesiology.  If there is something you disagree with, you must let your leaders know in sincerity and not teach or promote your viewpoint. 

Third, the elders are the shepherds of the church (1 Peter 5:1-4). Our elders are not figure-heads or simply board members with opinions. They carry real authority and have the ability to bless our ministry. They are a tremendous resource to us. We must have the kind of relationships with our elders that enable them to actively shepherd us – as individuals and as a small group. It is our goal that they know what we are doing and want to bless us.  Our intention is to be helpers to them in shepherding the flock of Christ. 

[1]John Calvin, The Golden Booklet of the True Christian Faith, trans. Henry J. Van Andel (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2004), 35.  

[2] Westminster Shorter Catechism, Question 1.

[3] John Frame, The Doctrine of the Christian Life, (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 2008).

[4] Calvin, 18.

[5] “Men ought not to content themselves with a general repentance, but it is every man’s duty to endeavor to repent of his particular sins particularly,” Westminster Confession of Faith, 15.5.

[6] Nick Batzig, “Keeping Short Accounts,” A Place for Truth, The Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals, last modified January 25, 2017, accessed February 2, 2020,