A “Geddes” Culture

The other day, my husband received an email sent from a friend and elder at our church hoping to discuss a new heresy that he felt was infiltrating the broader church. When I saw it, I was bothered by the heresy, but for some reason instead of thinking about that and its implications, my mind wandered to an imaginary scenario. What it would feel like if one of my female friends at church had sent it to me and a group of theologically minded women instead of the male friend of my husband. It was almost comical to imagine, and it took a bit of time for me to work through what it would actually look and feel like to have a culture where regular lay women understood and were interested in theology on that level.  

In my day-to-day interactions, it is rare to find women discussing theology, ecclesiology, the state of the current evangelical church, missions, or really anything vital to the well-being of the church. Our conversations revolve mainly around two subjects: our children – how we will educate them, what they are eating, if they are sleeping, and our husbands and their jobs. If we are in a close and healthy group, we may intermittently discuss our walk with Christ, spiritual growth, or struggles. But, at least in my experience, those are few and even in them, true theological discussions are highly uncommon.  As I meditated on this, I began to wonder why our culture was this way. Why do women not discuss theology and theological questions? Why do we seem happy to only skim the surface of each other’s lives? Why are we not concerned about the state of the church? I even entertained the question, are women as a gender truly less capable spiritually? Is it possible we really are the “weaker vessel” in every way – not just physically (1 Peter 3:7)? 

Jesus Christ showed repeatedly that he values, speaks to, and uses women.

Of course, is not true that women are a spiritually weaker vessel. In the Gospels, Jesus Christ showed repeatedly that he values, speaks to, and uses women. The most glorious moment in human history — Jesus Christ’s resurrection — was entrusted to a woman to share (John 20:1-18). His precious incarnated body was carried and borne by a woman. Women like the prophetess Anna (Luke 2:36-38), Mary and Martha (John 10:38-42 and John 11:27), Phoebe (Romans 16:1-2), the Greek women of Berea (Acts 17:1-4), and countless others were respected workers in the gospel. God even used Priscilla, along with her husband Aquila, to give theological instruction to Apollos who then went on to become an important, theologically accurate, evangelist in the church (Acts 18:24-28, 1 Corinth. 3:6). Women are not Christians “lite”, and we are not “junior partners” in the gospel. So why are most women in the complementarian, reformed community today uninterested in theology? Why do we not concern ourselves with important ecclesiological issues? 

Rising to the Challenge

There are different causes and possibly many different answers, but I believe the bottom line is simple. As humans, we rise to challenges. In order to grow, we must have a bar to jump or a problem to solve. A goal gives us something to work towards. Men in the church know they are leaders; they have a felt responsibility to their families and to the church. They are ordained as pastors, elders, and deacons. They are asked to teach adult Sunday School classes and retreats for teenagers. The pastors and elders of a church are constantly scanning the horizon of men in their churches to find new leaders and teachers. I do not believe women should be ordained to the office of pastor or elder, but complementarianism seems to result in an unspoken modus operandi of women having no gifting at all. We are left with a culture where women not only (supposedly) have a secondary role in the home and are discouraged from working outside the home so as to care for and even teach their children, but they also have no place in the church – they are unnecessary, superfluous.

Humans grow through expectation, work, and effort. Muscle is grown when it is challenged to bear more and more weight. In the same way, we are meant to grow spiritually by our community expecting something from us. Each part of our body has a function, and it is no coincidence that Paul uses this very metaphor as an example in 1 Corinthians 12. Are we truly a body of which no part is expendable (1 Corinthians 12:12-31)? Why then is there no expectation for women to use their spiritual gifts? Why do the elders of the church not seek to grow and use these gifts? Why are women not taking the responsibility to learn and develop their own gifts and callings? 

If women are only expected to show up (and even then, sometimes simply to watch the children) there is no motivation, opportunity, or means to grow and develop. When there is no expectation, apathy is unbridled. When a person believes they have no purpose and are not needed, there is no motivation to grow, learn, and shoulder real responsibility. They atrophy spiritually, just as muscles atrophy when not used. 

Men in church, on the other hand, have these opportunities and expectations from when they first join. They are personally motivated to grow. They are seen, drawn from, and developed by others. They have no doubt an investment in theological study will enable them to bear fruit in the church at large. 

When a person believes they have no purpose and are not needed, there is no motivation to grow, learn, and shoulder real responsibility.

I finished my master’s degree and then began a post-graduate degree in Theology as a man a few years younger than me at church began his Master of Divinity.  He immediately was given teaching opportunities and even preaching opportunities from the pulpit. He had already been teaching Sunday school and leading small groups for years and as he taught and led, his gift was recognized. He then received encouragement and support to further his training. This is exactly how the development of spiritual gifts should work in a healthy church environment, but that was when it hit me – I was probably wasting my time with theological training. There was no one encouraging me in my theological education. There was not even a way for me to use my gifts or training at my church. There was no one to eagerly draw from me or my education. 

This can be a vicious cycle for women and a serious systemic problem. Nothing is expected of us, so we produce nothing. Men and the church as a whole then look at our lack of theological acuity and feel they are proven right to not allow us to use our gifts because we are shallow spiritually and easily distracted by the domestic.

There is a famous story in the Presbyterian heritage about a courageous woman named Jenny Geddes.[1] It was 1637 and King Charles I began instituting Anglican worship through the required usage of a book of canons – a liturgy – in the fiercely Presbyterian Scotland. Jenny Geddes was a common woman in Edinburgh – so common in fact, her personal information has been lost to history. But we do know that she came to church in St. Giles Cathedral on Sunday, July 23, 1637, with her stool to sit upon in hand. The Dean, dressed in his vestment, came into the sanctuary, and walked up to the reading desk. As he began to read the liturgy, the crowd began to murmur. Jenny stood up and shouted, “Villain, dost thou say mass at my lug?” and promptly threw her stool at him, only missing his head because he ducked in time. Her act broke open the crowd’s frustration and they ran the dean out of the sanctuary with him losing his vestment in the process. The bishop then stood up to try to quiet the crowd, but he also was shouted down with accusations of “Pope!” and “anti-Christ!” and had to dodge stones being thrown. This scene initiated what some call the second reformation in Scotland.[2]

I tell this story partly as a very interesting and amusing part of history, but also as a challenge. What would have happened if Jenny Geddes did not know the Bible, or her own community’s theology well enough to recognize a resurgence of popery? I am not trying to give her more credit than she deserves, but there are many times in history where one person’s momentary choice becomes a turning point for a revolution. Where is the fiery spirit of Geddes in our churches and in our women today? Where is the stance on orthodoxy and correct theological thinking? Do we as women really believe that we bear no responsibility to the church? Do we have works to which Christ has called us and for which we must answer?

Geddes and I would probably disagree on many finer points of theology, but her spirit is one I want to emulate. As women, we must recognize that we are full members of the body of Christ, and we are in union with him the same way as men. We are gifted, called, and will be held responsible for our callings before the judgement seat of Christ along with our leaders. We will not be allowed to hide behind our pastors or husbands when we are called to account and we must not hide today either. 

[1] There are not many resources about Geddes but if you are interested, this one can give more information: W.P. Breed, Jenny Geddes or Presbyterianism and Its Great Conflict with Despotism (Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1869).

[2] Thomas McCrie, Sketches of Scottish Church History: embracing the period from the Reformation to the Revolution (Edinburgh: J. Johnstone, 1846), 204.

Clinging to Christ

As much as I have enjoyed school through the years, the first days and weeks of a new term always produce anxiety.  Yet, time and again when entering an unfamiliar lecture room, I would sense the other students fears and anticipation alongside my own. The communal classroom brought a realization that we are all in the same boat, experiencing the same emotions, and that commonality helped allay our fear. Joining the MTh program at Union School of Theology during the year of Covid was a completely unique experience. There was no school to walk into because classes were online. The palpable feeling of expectation and timidity of a new year was no longer endured by everyone in a room together. The bond that comes when placed in identical desks, physically lower than the lecturer, was lost. Sitting in vastly different homes, in separate time zones, instead emphasised our inequalities. My true life was literally on display as my husband and children wandered off and on the screen. I became adept at camera angles that hid dirty dishes and unmade beds.  Most years in my academic career, I have been able to at least impersonate a serious student, but this year it seemed impossible.

I chose Union because it offered opportunity, especially for women. Union was the first school I found which was confessional and reformed yet proactively seeking to train women theologically. Equipping women in theology is more than a nice thought, idea, or the ticking of a box at Union.  Phoebe scholarships, the Priscilla program, and the hiring of Natalie Brand as a dedicated women’s tutor are unmistakable proof that Union takes seriously the call to prepare for service the oft-neglected half of Christ’s bride. This was motivation and support that I did not realize I needed until I felt it for the first time at Union. 

Even with this support and encouragement, I was unsure and out of place when I began. The anxiety usually dissipated by relationships built in the classroom and over meals was mired by Zoom. Through the computer screen, other students appeared academically fearless and expectant. It was easy to imagine their world had no Zoom interlopers or unfolded laundry to hide. Would I have anything to add to discussions? Could I keep up? Was I even called to this level of academic study? 

In hesitant obedience to God, I resolved to attend class, research, and write in faith; not in a naïve faith that promises only outstanding marks and accolades, but a faith that was committed to trusting God no matter the marks made, or difficulties presented. This faith was, of course, tested in various ways the whole year. 

The humility that came from stepping into classes I did not feel I fit into strengthened my faith in Christ. It is funny how weakness and vulnerability given to Christ offer safety and strength in return. I knew before I started that I would not be able to complete this degree without His help, and that was proven all year. It may sound trite or pedantic, but in my case, it was absolutely true. There was not a class, or an essay begun where I was not begging the Lord to help me get through. Any understanding I gained or displayed was unmistakably by His grace. It is a unique gift to know your limitations and then see the Lord cover the gap between your ability and his calling. 

Academic study may seem like the opposite of growing in faith, the antithesis of increasing in affection for Christ. How mystical can researching 19th century liberal scholars be? Yet the rigor of class and the challenge of research and essay writing threw me into the arms of Christ. He alone had life for me in the days of frustration, anxiety, and the questioning of my ability to be a student. Jesus provided life for me in many amazing ways at Union – lecturers, tutors, fellow students and much of the research and study itself. But the most powerful and consistent encouragement came through my personal devotional study of the book of Ruth.  

Ruth was the Moabitess who recognized the LORD in His people. In the Israelites worship, their relationships, their homes, and culture Ruth found Him. Ruth represents a partial fulfilling of Genesis 12:3 – she is a foreshadowing of us – the Gentiles whose eyes would be miraculously and graciously opened to the beauty of Christ, and his bride the Church. When Ruth’s mother-in-law Naomi told Ruth to go back to her own pagan people, she refused. Ruth 1:14 says, “Then they lifted up their voices and wept again. And Orpah kissed her mother-in-law, but Ruth clung to her” (emphasis mine). Ruth saw the LORD in Naomi and clung to him. She was “determined” to have a place with the covenant people (v.18). 

As Ruth foreshadowed the nations coming to Jesus, the prophet Zechariah did as well when he declared, “In those days ten men from the nations of every tongue shall take hold of the robe of a Jew, saying, ‘Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you’” (Zech. 8:23). Jesus Christ is this Jew whose robe the nations have taken hold. The “ten men from every nation” wanted to go with Christ, and they have clung to his robe. Jesus is the one to whom we as believers have clung and must continue to cling! Ruth had no idea she could be a part of the heritage that would bring forth the Messiah when she clung to Naomi. She simply saw Christ in his people and grasped him through Naomi. 

In the same way as Naomi and the ten men from every nation, we also must cling to Jesus. When our eyes are opened by God in conversion, we behold the irresistible beauty of Christ, and we cannot help but grasp him.  Continuing to cling to Christ daily also requires his grace and mercy. He gives us this grace through daily study of the word, meditation on our union with him, fellowship with other believers, receiving the sacraments, and prayer. It takes a daily trusting of his grace to live each day for him and find life only in Him and in his Word. Simon Peter echoes Ruth as he answers Jesus’ question saying, “Lord, to whom shall we go? You alone have the words of eternal life” (John 6:68). As Jesus alone has the words of eternal life, he also is the only one who can give us peace for anxiety, encouragement for fear, hope for uncertainty, and grace for difficulty. 

Especially in seminary, we must cling to his promises to equip us for the ministry to which he has called us. He will not call without also equipping, yet knowing that promise and believing it can sometimes be disconnected. Believing he is committed to equipping us for ministry means trusting him that everything that happens is for our good, our growth, and the expansion of our knowledge of him. We must take to heart what Elizabeth proclaimed over Mary in Luke, “Blessed is she who has believed that the LORD will fulfil his promises to her!” (1:45).

Believing God’s promises for future ministry creates a fissure in self-reliance and self-sufficiency. As the light and life of Christ shines through that fissure in our stony hearts, there is hope that he will use us, he will equip us, and he will allow us to partner with him in building his kingdom. We have seen him, we will cling to him, and we will experience the blessing of believing his promises to us.  

Theological Support for Small Group Leadership

Being a leader in the Kingdom of God is different than any other leadership position you will ever encounter.  It is often said that the Kingdom of God is an “upside-down” reality.  Everything is different in the Kingdom of God. This is true of leadership as well.  Our natural tendency is to think of leaders as powerful, forceful, and impressive.  Yet, Christian leaders are called to be weak, meek, and humble.  

“But he said to me, ‘My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.’ Therefore I will boast all the more gladly of my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may rest upon me. For the sake of Christ, then, I am content with weaknesses, insults, hardships, persecutions, and calamities. For when I am weak, then I am strong” (2 Corinthians 12:9-11).

“Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth” (Matthew 5:5).

“I therefore, a prisoner for the Lord, urge you to walk in a manner worthy of the calling to which you have been called, with all humility and gentleness, with patience, bearing with one another in love” (Ephesians 4:1-2).

The most important aspect of leadership is your own personal relationship with God. Your intimacy with God will fuel your leadership. This intimacy is centered around prayer and personal study of the Word.  Never allow your leadership responsibilities to negatively affect your own personal walk with the Lord. It is only by our constant dependence on Him that we will be able to serve those God has called us to cheerfully and lovingly. 


Prayer must be the foundation of your service to the Kingdom of God. Your union in Christ and your communion with him are vital in your ability to serve without burn-out.  

Spend time meditating on being hidden in him and on your union with him. Savor the sweet communion he gives when you go to him in prayer. Never sacrifice your personal time with Jesus for any leadership duty. Prayer is the fuel that runs the machine of your life with Christ, your service to him, and to his church.  In the same way, our study of the Bible is essential to our ability to serve. 

To have the love of Jesus manifested in your life, you must love God by knowing and obeying his commands. How can you know what his commands are? By studying his word. Communion with God in the Scriptures is the anchor of our souls. It will keep us standing on the Rock. Trust God with the time you spend in his Word. Your time spent is communion with him and not a duty to fulfill. 

HumilitySee Philippians 2:4-8

Effective leaders in the Kingdom of God are called to have the same humility and attitude of a servant just as Jesus Christ.  

Jesus has called each of us to deny ourselves and take up our cross. When you follow Jesus, your life is no longer yours. You have given your life to Christ. Just as Jesus emptied himself and took the form of a servant, we are to do the same for the church. As you pray for and minister to your small group, you are looking to their interest instead of your own. We are each to have this mind as we serve in leadership. This humility will be conspicuous in all the relationships in our life. Our relationship with our spouse, children, and family should reflect this principle. Love for God and for others is our motivation. We are called to continually look to the interests of those we are serving in both our families as well as the church. Ask Jesus for the grace to serve others with humility. Trust him to change and sanctify you as you depend on him for the ability to humble yourself in your service and seek the good of others.

Spiritual Giftings

John Calvin wrote, “Scripture urges and warns us that whatever favors we may have obtained from the Lord, we have received them as a trust on condition that they should be applied to the common benefit of the church.” And “Whatever ability a faithful Christian may possess, he ought to possess it for his fellow believers, and he ought to make his own interest subservient to the well-being of the church in all sincerity.”[1]

God has given you specific spiritual gifts that he wants to use for the furtherance of his Kingdom.  This ministry is the perfect opportunity to practice and develop those gifts. Your love of and commitment to the gospel of Jesus Christ will flow through your gifts. You may be surprised when discipleship and mentoring of your group continues outside of your weekly time together. Many times, this is where genuine ministry happens. The real-life circumstances that we find ourselves in each day are opportunities to apply the principles and promises being learned from Scripture. Be open to every opportunity the Holy Spirit gives you to teach and encourage those around you. 

We must continually be thinking of ourselves “with sober judgement” (Romans 12:1-9), so that we will not be proud, but instead will experience the faith God has given us to use our spiritual gifts. 


We are justified by faith. When we step out in ministry to others, our service must come from a place of faith as well. Faith is different from self-confidence. Instead of trusting in yourself, it is looking to God to fulfill his promises.  You are moving in obedience to God, believing he will be the power behind you. As referred to above, Paul says using our gifts effectively requires humility and faith. The two must go hand in hand.  We see in the body of Christ that we are all different, we have distinct gifts and callings, and we each serve according to the grace and faith God has given us.

There is a moment in each of our callings where we must step out, not knowing what is coming.  Much like Peter stepping out of the boat (Matthew 14:28-33), there will be a time you must actually get out of the boat of your own comfort, and trust God to help you walk on the water of ministry.  You must take the risk of using your spiritual gifts and trust God to do the work. You know that he has called you to something that is impossible for you in your own strength to accomplish.  But we step out of the boat, believing in faith that it is God who will do the real work in these women’s lives.  

It is God who gives us the mustard seed of faith (Luke 17:6, Matthew 13:31-32) and that seed is crucial to serve in ministry.  Guard the mustard seed he has given you. Meditate on the fact that it is Christ in you who has the strength and ability to minister to the women. Nurture your seed of faith with the water and sunlight of the word and prayer. The God who has called you will continue to give you the faith to carry out his will. Rely on Him as you prepare, teach, and serve. 

Trusting God when Faced with Challenges

He who called you is faithful to equip you

Sometimes when we are serving the church as well as our families, we can begin to feel overwhelmed.  Do not allow your leadership in Bible study to detract from the calling you have at home.  God will provide for you in all that he has called you. Be conscientious to not over-prepare for Bible study, as this may strain and overload you unnecessarily.  We each have multiple responsibilities in life. Your family/personal relationships will interrupt you as you serve the women, and your shepherding of the women may interrupt time usually spent with family and friends. Trust God with these challenges, remembering that he who called you is faithful to equip you to serve him.

He has called you to something impossible to accomplish in your own strength

Ask Jesus for the grace to serve with his strength instead of your own.  He wants to grow your dependence on him through these trials. “Humble yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of God so that at the proper time he may exalt you, casting all your anxieties on him, because he cares for you” (1 Peter 5:6-7). As believers in this fallen world, we should expect suffering.  It is through suffering that we experience the grace and mercy of God. It is through suffering that we experience our fragility and his unending strength. And it is through suffering that our eyes are lifted above this fallen, sinful world and we remember that “we have no lasting city, but we seek the city that is to come” (Heb. 13: 14). 

Jesus himself “learned obedience through what he suffered” (Heb.5:8), and he is able to understand and sympathize with our weaknesses. Let’s not be anxious about what is happening in our lives because when we “draw near to the throne of grace” we will receive all we could ever need from him who loves us (Heb. 4:15-16). 

Moral Integrity

Moral integrity, or holiness, is also a key component in leadership. Our “chief end” is “to glorify God and to enjoy him forever.”[2] This means every activity we participate in is meant to glorify God. Whether we are studying the Bible or washing dishes, we are meant to do it for the glory of God (Colossians 3:17). In every situation we find ourselves, we must ask this question: What can I do in this situation to bring the most glory to God?[3] Bringing glory to God is our moral compass. Our morality is growing in holiness before God and man.  This holiness is not only external but is an outgrowth of the inner work the Holy Spirit is doing in us. Holiness is a gift from Christ. “Because the Father has reconciled us to himself in Christ, therefore he commands us to be conformed to Christ as to our pattern.”[4] 

Cultivate inner growth by reflecting daily on your union with Christ, the equipping by the Holy Spirit, and the sovereign grace and love of the Father. As you continue growing in your sanctification, share your victories and your struggles with your leadership team. Encourage others as you are encouraged by the Word, and by your own growth (1 Thessalonians 5:11).  Don’t forget, as leaders our moral choices not only affect us but also those whom we serve in leadership, our family, our church family, and our community. 

RepentanceSee 1 John 1:5-10

One crucial safeguard of your moral integrity is to, as attributed to the Puritans, “Keep your accounts short with God and men.” This means don’t allow days and weeks go by without repenting for known sin. We should repent often and repent “particularly.”[5] In other words, we should repent with details to God. We should pointedly consider ourselves and repent as the Holy Spirit convicts.  And as we sin against one another, we also must repent specifically and offering forgiveness impartially and endlessly.[6] Repentance is always the marker of revival, both an individual’s personal revival and documented societal revivals. If we want our community, church, and ministry to experience revival, it must begin with repentance.  

Repentance is a kindness shown to us by God (Rom. 2:4). Jesus commands us to repent (Luke 5:32), and he points out that it is sinners whom he has called to repent. We can be assured of our salvation as we experience conviction from the Holy Spirit (I Thess. 1:5). True, rich, growing relationships with other people will always give us much practice in both repentance and forgiveness. 

Each one of us should have another person to whom we can confess and truly share our lives, struggles, and victories. This aspect of fellowship is vital and can be a means of grace for the ongoing desire for holiness in our lives.  As we repent and forgive, remember that “love bears all things” (I Cor. 13:7).  We each will take turns bearing all things in one another. 

Accountability to the Local Church

The local church is often immensely undervalued in the broadly evangelical world today.  The New Testament was written to particularized local churches, and Paul assumed a local church organization when he taught on elders and deacons in the epistles.  It is almost shocking how much emphasis is placed on the local church in the New Testament.

God wants to spread his fame through the local church. The local church is God’s plan for evangelism and mission.  

The local church matters to God. In Scripture the church is called the body of Christ, and his bride (Colossians 1:18, Revelation 21:2, 21:9).  If the local church is that precious and valuable to God, it should be to us as well. This is where one should find the discipleship and accountability needed to grow and mature. Parachurch organizations are helpful, but the local church is the place we can truly live all of life together with other believers and hold one another accountable.  

The local church is our spiritual authority.  If we are not in a local church, or if our ministry is not founded in the local church, we risk being “lone rangers” with no accountability or discipline. Rather than being restrictive and controlling, spiritual authority grounded in the word of God gives safety and blessing. 

An elder is charged with overseeing the local church. So, first of all, an elder cannot oversee things he cannot see.  In other words, nothing we do should be “out of sight” of the elders. We should always endeavor to operate with their full knowledge and enthusiastic blessing.  

Second, an elder has been given authority over the doctrine which is taught in the church (Acts 20:28-31). Therefore, we must not teach things that disagree with the doctrine of the church. My church is reformed in doctrine, we subscribe to the Westminster Confession of Faith as our standards, and we are Presbyterian in our ecclesiology.  If there is something you disagree with, you must let your leaders know in sincerity and not teach or promote your viewpoint. 

Third, the elders are the shepherds of the church (1 Peter 5:1-4). Our elders are not figure-heads or simply board members with opinions. They carry real authority and have the ability to bless our ministry. They are a tremendous resource to us. We must have the kind of relationships with our elders that enable them to actively shepherd us – as individuals and as a small group. It is our goal that they know what we are doing and want to bless us.  Our intention is to be helpers to them in shepherding the flock of Christ. 

[1]John Calvin, The Golden Booklet of the True Christian Faith, trans. Henry J. Van Andel (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2004), 35.  

[2] Westminster Shorter Catechism, Question 1.

[3] John Frame, The Doctrine of the Christian Life, (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 2008).

[4] Calvin, 18.

[5] “Men ought not to content themselves with a general repentance, but it is every man’s duty to endeavor to repent of his particular sins particularly,” Westminster Confession of Faith, 15.5.

[6] Nick Batzig, “Keeping Short Accounts,” A Place for Truth, The Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals, last modified January 25, 2017, accessed February 2, 2020, https://www.placefortruth.org/blog/keeping-short-accounts.